Bulgarian Khans


The List of Names of the Bulgarian Khans

It is assumed that this document, unique for early European feudalism, was compiled in the time of the founder of the Bulgarian state Khan Asparoukh (681 - about 700). Later continued, up to about 767, it represents the genealogy of the Bulgarian rulers, beginning, with no particularly good reason, from the Huns' leader Attila (Avitohol). The too long time of his rule, and that of his heir Ernich, was obviously of a legendary character.

This monument  had been compiled in the Greek language, inserting the Proto-Bulgarian (Turkic) names of the years of the rulers' ascension to the throne. It is believed that the Proto-Bulgarian system of chronology was based on cycles of 12 lunar years, each of them bearing the name of some animal, for example, "shegor" ("ox"), "dilom" ("snake"), etc. The "List of Names of the Bulgarian Khans" has reached us in Old Church-Slavonic translations made in the 16th century, in which the Proto-Bulgarian terms were preserved.

The first genealogy of the Bulgarian rulers demonstrates an amazing feeling for the dynastic and statehood continuity of the old Proto-Bulgarian state by the Volga river ("beyond the Danube") and the new Proto-Bulgarian-Slavic principality ("on this side of the Danube"). This is how it read:
AVITOHOL lived 300 years. His family Dulo, and his year (of accession to the throne) dilom tvirem.

ERNICH lived 150 years. His family Dulo, his year dilom tvirem.

GOSTUN 2 years. His family Ermi, and his year doks tvirem.

KURT ruled 60 years. His family Dulo, and his year shegor vechem.
BEZMER 3 years, and his family Dulo, and his year shegor vechem.
These five  princes ruled over the principality beyond the Danube 515 years with shaven heads and then [it] came to this side of the Danube.  Asparoukh prince ever since.

ASPAROUKH prince 60 and one year (rules). His family Dulo, and his year vereni alem.

TERVEL 21 years. His family Dulo, and his year tekouchitem tvirem.

SEVAR 15 years. His family Dulo, and his year tokh altom.

KORMISOSH 17 years. His family Vokil, and his year shegor tvirem.
VINEKH 7 years. His family Oukil. And his year shegor alem.

TELETZ 3 years. His family Ougain, and his year somor altem.

OUMOR (ruled) 40 days. His family Oukil, and the year dilom tutom.